Biology Department photograph montage

LeBuhn CV

 Gretchen LeBuhn
Department of Biology
San Francisco State University 
1600 Holloway Avenue 
San Francisco, CA 94132
 University of California, Santa Barbara, California Ph.D. March 1998. Biology.
University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut M.S. June 1991. Botany.
Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee B. A. December 1984. European Studies.
Professional Experience
University of Connecticut. Teaching assistant 1989-1992.
University of California. Technician 1992-1993.
University of California. Teaching assistant 1994-1996.
National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis. Graduate intern. September 1997-1998.
Florida State University. Instructor. January-June 1998.
Florida State University. Postdoctoral associate September 1998-2000.
University of California-Berkeley. Postdoctoral associate. September 2000-2001.
San Francisco State University. Assistant professor. January 2001-August 2007.
University of California at Berkeley, Visiting Scholar. August 2003-August 2004.
San Francisco State University. Associate professor. August 2007-present.
Stanford University. Visiting Scholar. August 2007- September 2008.
The Great Sunflower Project. Director. January 2008-present.
Editorial Board. Madrono January 2009-present.
Associate Editor.Proceedings of Life. 2009-present.
United Nations-FAO. Technical Advisor 2008-2009.
Smithsonian. Bombus Experts Workshop. 2009.

Publications. (Since coming to SFSU, I have chosen to follow the tradition of the senior author being the final author when the paper involves students from my laboratory, * student author)

Accepted or Published
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  • Droege, S. V. Tepedino, G. LeBuhn, W. Link, R. L. Minckley, Q. Chen, C. Conrad. Accepted. North American Bowl Trap Evaluation 1. Spatial Patterns of Captures of Bees.  Journal of Insect Conservation and Diversity.
  • Colloran, B. and G. LeBuhn. Accepted. The Benefits of Meadow Restoration for Pollinators.  In: T. Root and K. Hall eds. Biological Impacts of Climate Change in California
  • Winfree, R. R. Aguilar, D. Vazquez, G. LeBuhn and M. Aizen. 2009. A meta-analysis of bees’ responses to anthropogenic disturbance. Ecology 90: 2068-2076.
  • LeBuhn, G. and C. Fenter*. 2008. Landscape context influences bumble bee communities in oak woodland habitats. Pages 301-306 in A. Merenlender, D. McCreary, and K. Purcell, technical coordinators. Proceedings of the 6th California oak symposium: today's challenges, tomorrow's opportunities. 9-12 October 2006; Rohnert Park, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR. Albany, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; In Press.
  • Reynolds, M. , T. Gardali, M. Merrifield*, R. Hirsch-Jacobsen*, A. Armstrong, D. Wood, J.Smith, E. Heaton*, and G. LeBuhn. 2008.  Reproductive Success of Oak Woodland Birds in Sonoma and Napa Counties, California Pages 433-436. in A. Merenlender, D. McCreary, and K. Purcell, technical coordinators. Proceedings of the 6th California oak symposium: today's challenges, tomorrow's opportunities. 9-12 October 2006; Rohnert Park, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR. Albany, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; In Press.
  • *Chess, S., R. Raguso and G. LeBuhn. 2008. Divergence in floral scent and morphology of Linanthus dichotomus. American Journal of Botany 95:1652-1659.
  • *Clarke, K., B. Fisher, and G. LeBuhn. 2008. The influence of urban park characteristics on ant (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) communities. Urban ecosystems 11:317-334.
  • Packer, L., Gravel, A-I*. , and G. LeBuhn.  2007. Phenology and Sociobiology of Halictus tripartitus (Seladonia). J. Hym. Res.16:281-292.
  • *Hatfield, R. and G. LeBuhn. 2007. Patch and landscape factors shape community assemblage of bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in montane meadows. Biological Conservation 139:150-158.
  • Weller, S. G., C. A. Dominguez, F. E. Molina-Freaner, J. Fornoni, and G. LeBuhn. 2007. The Evolution of Heterostyly in Populations of Oxalis alpine in the Sky Islands of the Sonoran Desert. American Journal of Botany. 94: 972-985.
  • *Chaves, J., J. Pollinger, T. B. Smith and G. LeBuhn. 2007. The role of geography and ecology in shaping the phylogeography of the speckled hummingbird (Adelomyia melanogenys) in Ecuador. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43:795-807.
  • Kremen, C., N. Williams, M. A. Aizen, B. Gemmill-Herren, G. LeBuhn, R. Minckley, L. Packer, S. G. Potts, T. Roulston, I. Steffan-Dewenter, D. Vazquez, R. Winfree, L. Adams, E. E.Crone, S. S. Greenleaf, T. H. Keitt, A. Klein, J. Regetz, T. Ricketts. 2007. Pollination in agricultural ecosystems.  Ecology Letters. 6: 1077-1083
  • LeBuhn, G. and M. Reynolds 2006. The little things that run the world.  Ecology 87:531-532 (book review).
  • *McFrederick, Q. and G. LeBuhn. 2006. Are urban parks refuges for bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Biological Conservation 129:372-382.
  • LeBuhn, G., S. Droege, and M. Carboni*. 2006. Monitoring methods for solitary bee species in North America.  State of the Worlds’ Pollinators Report.  UN-FAO. Available at
  • Smith, J. I., M. D. Reynolds, and G. LeBuhn. 2005. Warbling Vireo Productivity and Key Nest-site Characteristics in the Northern Sierra. Journal of Field Ornithology 76:383-389.
  • Weis, A.E., J. Winterer, T.A. Kossler*, C.Y. Young, C. Vacher and G. LeBuhn. 2004. Phenological assortative mating in plants: causes and consequences of its inherent frequency-dependence. Evolutionary Ecology Research 7:161-181.
  • Smith, J. I., M. D. Reynolds, and G. LeBuhn. 2004. Warbling Vireo Nesting Ecology in the Northern Sierra Nevada. Western Birds 35:32-41
  • LeBuhn, G. Bees in a vineyard landscape. 2004. Oaks and Folks 18:7. (available online at:
  • LeBuhn, G. 2004. Seasonal variation in reproductive traits in Ipomopsis longiflora (Polemoniaceae), a desert annual.  Canadian Journal of Botany 82:401-408.
  • Harding, E.E., B.D. Elderd, J. Hoekstra, A. McKerrow, J. Perrin, J. Regetz, L. Rissler, A. Stanley, E. Walters, and NCEAS HCP Working Group (including LeBuhn) . (2001). The scientific foundations of habitat conservation plans: a quantitative assessment. Conservation Biology   15: 488-500.
  • LeBuhn, G. and T. E. Miller. 2001. Population viability. In:  McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. McGraw Hill Publishing. New York.
  • Mazer, S. J. and G. LeBuhn. 1999. Genetic variation in life history traits: Evidence within and among populations and lessons learned. In: Life history evolution in plants (Vuorisal, T. and P. Mutikainen. Es.) Kluwer Academic Dordrecht. The Netherlands.
  • Kareiva, P. and many others (including LeBuhn). 1999. The scientific basis of Habitat Conservation Planning under the Endangered Species Act. Available at:
  • Miller, T. E. and G. LeBuhn. 1998. The ecological detective – Confronting models with data. Science 281:788. (book review)
  • LeBuhn G. and K. Holsinger. 1998. A sensitivity analysis of pollen dispensing schedules. Evolutionary Ecology. 12:111-121.
  • LeBuhn, G. 1996. Timing is everything new directions in floral phenology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 121: 1-3.
  • LeBuhn, G. 1995. Ecology and Evolution of Plant reproduction: New approaches, Plant Genetics Newsletter 10: 31. (book review)
  • LeBuhn, G. and. G. J. Anderson. 1994. Anther tripping and pollen dispensing in Berberis thunbergii.  American Midland Naturalist 131:257-265.

Non-peer reviewed.

LeBuhn, G. and E. Conner. 2008. Report to the National Park Service on Analysis of Monitoring of Prairie Falcon occupancy and fecundity at Pinnacles National Park.
Conner, E. and G. LeBuhn. 2008. Report to the National Park Service on Analysis of Monitoring of Northern Spotted Owls occupancy and fecundity in the Golden Gate National Recreation Area.
Duane, T. and many others including LeBuhn. 2008. Economics of Critical Habitat Designation and Species Recovery. Consensus statement.
LeBuhn, G. 2002. The Buzz from the Bee Lady. Napa Valley Sustainable Winegrowers Group Newsletter.
LeBuhn G. 2002. The Buzz from the Bee Doctor. Sonoma Valley Vintners Association Newsletter.

Invited seminars.

SFSU Colloquium 2009. How to conserve ecosystem services.
NAPPC 2009 Yes, we can! Global monitoring of bees.
San Francisco City Parks Department 2009. Bees in an urban landscape
Presidio National Park 2009. What can urban parks do to support bees?
University of San Francisco 2009. Bumble bees and climate change.
CSU-Chico 2009. Bumble bees and Climate change.
Sci-Foo. 2009. Grassroots science.
Georgia Botanical Garden 2009. The Great Sunflower Project.
University of Georgia. 2009. Effects of climate change on montane meadows of the Sierra Nevada.
Eco Farm 2009. Bees, Please... and Beneficial Insects: Habitat Factors For Successful Pest Control and Pollination
Green Schoolyard Alliance 2008. The role of green schoolyards supporting pollinators.
Sonoma State University. 2008. The effects of climate change on bumble bee community structure.
SFSU Ecology and Evolution Colloquium. 2008.The effects of climate change on bumble bee community structure.
Napa Sustainable Winegrowers Group. Conservation of Bees in Vineyards. 2008.
Eco-Farm.  2008. Farming for pollinators.
Stanford. 2007. Evaluating ecosystem services in Central California
The Wildlife Society. September 2006. Will traditional measures used for prioritizing wildlife habitat conserve ecosystem services like pollination?
SFSU College of Science and Engineering Showcase. How can we plan to conserve ecosystem services? May 2006.
NCEAS Working group. Solitary bees of California oak woodlands. June 2005.
North American Pollinator Protection Campaign. Monitoring solitary bees. September 2004.
Humboldt State University. Bees as indicator species in oak woodlands. Spring 2004.
California Native Plant Society. The evolution of competitive ability in Brassica rapa. November 2003.
California County Planners Conference. Using bee monitoring as a tool for restoration. Fall 2003.
University of California-Santa Cruz. The evolution of competitive ability in Brassica rapa. May 2003.
Napa Valley Vinters and Growers Association. Monitoring bees in oak woodlands. Fall 2002.
SFSU Ecology and Evolution seminar. Bees in a vineyard landscape. September 2002.
University of California Berkeley. Bees in a vineyard landscape. April 2002.
SFSU Romberg Tiburon Center. Monitoring bees in oak woodlands. April 2002.
San Francisco Biosystematists. The role of systematics in conservation. February 2002.
The Nature Conservancy, California regional office. Increasing diversity in the conservation workplace. 2001.
San Francisco State University. March 2000.
University of California at Irvine June 2000
Simon Fraser University February 1999
University of California Santa Cruz may 1999
Duke University November 1999
Florida State University September 1997.

Selected Contributed Presentations (* with student author). 

 LeBuhn, G. 2009. Monitoring phenologies and ecological interactions in the face of global change. Ecological Society of America
Winfree, R., R. Aguilar, D. Vazquez, G. LeBuhn and M. Aizen. 2008 How do bees respond to anthropogenic disturbance? A meta-analysis. Ecological Society of America
G. LeBuhn and *B. Colloran. The effects of weather on alpine bumble bee community structure. Ecological Socity of America.
LeBuhn, G., M. Reynolds, R. Brooks and E. Rentz*. 2006. Monitoring solitary bees in a vineyard environment. Bay area conservation biology meetings
*Cleeves, J. M. Reynolds, E. Connor, and G. LeBuhn 2005. Effect of matrix composition on bird species richness and abundance in Sierran montane meadows. Bay area conservation biology meetings.


*Chess, S., R. Raguso, and G. LeBuhn. 2004.

Evidence for pollinator-mediated selection in

Linanthus dichotomous.  Botanical Society of America. This paper won the Ecological Section Award for the best student presentation.
*Swinney, E. *& G. LeBuhn. 2004. The effect of cover crops on growth, chlorophyll quantity and photosynthetic rates on oak seedlings and grapevines. Ecological Society of America meeting.

*Simono, Scott, G. LeBuhn, *R. Hatfield and J. Carah. Plant diversity in montane meadows of the eastern sierra Nevada: correlating patch and landscape features with plant species richness.

SFSU Student Showcase award winner.
Reynolds, M., G. LeBuhn, R. Hatfield*, E. Rentz*, E. Conner, and J. Cleeves* 2004. Biodiversity of Sierra Nevada meadows – landscape context, habitat quality and annual variation. Society for Conservation Biology meeting.
*McFrederick, Q. * and LeBuhn, Gretchen. 2004. Bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in San Francisco's Urban Parks. Society for Conservation Biology Meeting.
LeBuhn, G. and many others including Q. McFrederick*. 2004. Expanding the Ark Symposium, AMNH. A standardized method for monitoring solitary bees. 
*Fenter, C. and G. LeBuhn. 2004. Expanding the Ark Symposium, AMNH. The effect of vineyardization on bumblebee species richness and abundance.
*Swinney, E. *& G. LeBuhn. 2004. The effect of cover crops on growth, chlorophyll quantity and photosynthetic rates on oak seedlings and grapevines. Bay Area Conservation Biology Meeting.
*McFrederick, Q. * and LeBuhn, Gretchen. 2004. Bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in San Francisco's Urban Parks. Bay area Conservation Biology Meeting.
*Strathmann, Katrina S.; Connor, Edward F. & LeBuhn, Gretchen. 2004. Butterfly communities in northeastern Sierra meadows. Bay area Conservation Biology meeting.
*Fenter, C. and G. LeBuhn. 2004.The impact of fragmentation on Bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Napa and Sonoma County oak woodland. Bay area Conservation Biology meeting.
Reynolds, M, J. Smith, and Gretchen LeBuhn. 2003. Bird population dynamics of Sierra Nevada meadows. Society for Conservation Biology meeting.
Reynolds, M. and G. LeBuhn. 2003. Population dynamics of Sierra Nevada birds. Partners in Flight meeting.
Reynolds, M., E. Heaton, G. LeBuhn. 2003. Effects of vineyard development on California oak woodland bird communities. TNC All Science meeting
*Hatfield, R. and G. LeBuhn. 2003. Bumblebees in montane meadows of the Sierra Nevada, California. Bay Area Conservation Biology
*Hatfield, R. and G. LeBuhn. 2002. Bumblebees in montane meadows of the Sierra Nevada, California Sierra Science Symposium.
Reynolds, M. and G. LeBuhn. 2002. Bird population dynamics in Sierra Nevada meadows. Sierra Science Symposium
LeBuhn, G. 2002. Bees in a vineyard landscape. Integrated Hardwoods Range Management Meeting
*Emily Heaton, C. Brooks, M. Reynolds and G. LeBuhn. 2001. Examining Effects of Vineyard Development on Bird Populations of California’s Oak Woodlands—Use of GIS and Power Analysis to Select Study Sites. California Oak Symposium

  • Instructor. The Bee Course 2000-2009.
  • Project Director. Great Sunflower Project ( 2007-present.
  • Project Director Training in Ecology and Evolution program for graduate students at SFSU. 2007-
  • CESU representative for the University 2003-
  • Workgroup on Oak Conservation, Integrated Hardwoods Range Management Program.
  • North American Pollinator Protection Campaign Advisory Committee
  • Bee monitoring website (

Graduate students.

Erica Swinney. MS 2004. Effects of Cover Crops on Chlorophyll, Photosynthesis and Mycorrhyzae of grapes and oaks.
Sally Chess. MS 2005. Divergence in Linanthus dichomtomous.
  1. Rich Hatfield. MS 2003. Determinants of species richness and abundance of bumble bees in montane meadows of the Sierra Nevada     
  2. Jaime Chaves. MS 2004. Phylogeography, evolution and flight ecophysiology of the Speckled Hummingbird in Ecuador.
  3. Quinn McFrederick. MS 2004. Bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in San Francisco's Urban Parks. 
  4. Cynthia Fenter MS 2006. Maintaining pollinator service in a network of urban parks.
  5. Megan Keever MS 2006. The effects of sheep grazing on the reproductive ecology of three vernal pool plant species.
  6. Kevin Clarke MS 2007. How do we minimize invasion of Argentine ants through appropriate restoration?
  7. Jennifer Krauel MS. 2009. Foraging ecology of bats in San Francisco.
  8. Brendan Colloran MS 2009. MS (Mathematics).
  9. Simone Whitecloud. Exp. 2010. Effects of canopy cover and embeddedness on macroinvertebrate communities in California's Northern Coast Range streams
  10. Rae Goodman.  The effects of climate change on body size of birds at Palomarin.  MS 2010.
  11. Amber Nordby Exp. 2010
  12. Vaslissa Derugin Exp. 2011
  13. Mary Israel MS (Geography) Exp. 2011